# 5th Grade - Inferences, Conclusions And Generalizations

 Grade Level: 5th Skill: Reading and Comprehension Topic: Inferences, conclusions and generalizations Goal: Draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with textual evidence and prior knowledge. Skill Description: Be able to recognize clues in the text and combine them with what you already know about the world in order to understand things that aren’t directly stated.

## Building Blocks/Prerequisites

### Sample Problems

 (1) True or False: When you infer, you go beyond the surface details to see other meanings that the details suggest, not state. (true) (2) What kind of techniques can you use to make inferences? (get a general sense of meaning, find examples, or look for opposites) (3) True or False: You need to combine what you already know about the world with what the text in order to make meaning. (true) (4) What is prior knowledge? (the facts, ideas, and information you already have) (5) True or False: An inference is an evidence-based guess. (true)

### Learning Tips

(1)

Vocabulary

Inferring- “reading between the lines” or using the clues within the text to give you a deeper understanding of your reading.

Implied – something that is suggested or hinted at, not stated.

Prior knowledge- (sometimes called schema) what you know about that world that you bring to the text, such as information, ideas, and experiences.

Cloze activity – (also called a cloze procedure) a passage that has some words missing (such as every fifth word) and is used as a reading tool.

When you read, you need to think about what you already know and combine that with what the text says in order to make meaning, a process which is called inferring or drawing conclusions.

Conclusions are when you put together the text clues to come up with the whole picture. Inferences are when you look at the whole picture and fill in the missing parts.

(2)

The World Inside A Book

When you are reading a good book, you may get “lost” in it and be startled or upset if someone interrupts your reading. As you read, you imagine the situation and infer things the author has not told you in the text. You infer why things happen, why characters behave the way they do, and how characters are feeling. You enter the world created by the author, and you create images and inferences based on what the author tells you and your own knowledge and beliefs about that world.

The next time you are reading a chapter in a good book, notice when the author mentions the one of the senses (seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, smelling). At the end of that chapter, write a list of what was mentioned in the book and then fill in the rest with what you think makes sense.

(3)

Inferring and questioning go hand in hand to build understanding. You should ask yourself questions about what you are reading to clarify uncertainty or predict what will happen next. When you ask a question, making an inference is rarely far behind!

Try asking questions as you read. Force yourself to write down an answer, even if you aren’t sure if it is right. Here are some prompts to get you started:

Well, maybe it means….

I wonder….

(4)

Illustrate a Poem

As you read novels and even expository texts, you are often expected to infer setting and other important elements, seeing them in your “mind’s eye”. In many poems and novels, the author begins without explicitly telling the reader when or where the story is taking place. You have to determine the setting from the clues that are given.

Choose a poem to read and illustrate. Make sure you draw the elements that are explicitly given, and then add things that also belong. For example, if the poem talks about going on a picnic, you could include food and drinks on a picnic blanket even if they aren’t mentioned outright.

(5)

Predictions

After reading to the middle of a novel, stop and make five predictions about what will happen next or how the book will end. Think about the character’s emotions and how they might act. When you are finished with the book, see how close your predictions were to what actually happened.

 Predictions Actual Outcomes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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