5th Grade - Spelling Roots, Suffixes And Contractions

 
     
 
     
 
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5th
Grammar
Spelling roots, suffixes and contractions
Spell roots, suffixes, prefixes, contractions, and syllable constructions correctly.
Be able to add prefixes and suffixes correct and change letters as needed, know how to break a word into syllables, and break apart and put together contractions correctly.
 

Sample Problems

(1)

Won’t” is a contraction for which two words? (would not)

(2)

O’clock” is a contraction for what? (of the clock)

(3)

Which is correct: unaware or inaware? (unaware)

(4)

Which is spelled correctly: lonelyness or loneliness? (loneliness)

(5)

Which is spelled correctly: plentiful or plentiful? (plentiful)

Learning Tips

(1)

Vocabulary


Prefix–a set of letters you add to the beginning of a word to alter its meaning (such as: un, re, de, dis, mis, in, im, il, im, non, pre, extra, mid, co, cor, com)


Suffix- a set of letters you add to the end of a word to alter its meaning (such as: ness, able, ible, er, or, ar, ly, ment, ion, tion, ous, ious, en, ish, like, ful, less)


Contraction- is a word made up of two words with some of the letters being replaced by an apostrophe


(2)

Adding Suffixes


Adding suffixes sometimes changes the spelling of a word (meaning you drop or change letters that were already there), and it sometimes doesn’t. You have to study many of them to get a feel for it. The good news it that there are patterns you can look for.


Whenever you add a suffix or verb-tense ending which starts with a vowel to words ending in ue, remove the e .


For example:


blue + er = bluer (not blueer)

argue + ed = argued (not argueed)

issue + ing = issuing (not issueing)


When you add the suffix –or, you don’t need to drop any letters.


For example:


govern + or = governor

sail + or = sailor

act + or = actor


(3)

Watch Out Words Ending with “y”s

Adding a suffix may or may not change the spelling of the root word. Look out when the root ends with a “y”—these words often have changes.

When you add the suffix –ness, you don’t need to drop any letters, but if y was the last letter, it changes to an i.


For example:


kind + ness = kindness

dark + ness = darkness


happy + ness = happiness (not happyness)

lonely + ness = loneliness (not lonelyness)


When you add the suffix -ly, you don’t need to drop any letters, but you might have to add –ily.


For example:

honest + ly = honestly


speed + ly = speedily (not speedly)

angry + ly = angrily (not angryly)

happy + ly = happily (not happyly)



When you add the suffix –ful, you don’t need to drop any letters, but if the root word ends in y, that y changes to an i.


For example:

skill + full = skillful


plenty + full = plentiful



(4)

Prefixes


The following are prefixes: un, il, de, dis, mis, in, im, non, pre, extra, mid, co, cor, com, re


Adding a prefix never changes the spelling of a word, even when the word starts with a vowel.


For example,


dis + appear = disappear (not disppear)

un + edible = unedible (not undible)



(5)

Only One Makes Sense

Not all prefixes go with all words. For example, unremarkable is a word, while ilremarkable and disremarkable are not.


In general, a word will only make sense with ONE of the negative prefixes: un, dis, mis, il, in, im, non, de


So if you know that imperfect is a word, then you know that these are NOT words:

unperfect

disperfect

misperfect

ilperfect

inperfect

nonperfect

deperfect


The same goes for the suffixes, such as ible and able. If you know that comfortable is a word, then you know that ible isn’t going to work to make comfortible (not a word!).


The suffixes or, ar, and er are very similar. If you know the word actor is correct, then acter and actar are incorrect.


Extra Help Problems

(1)

What is the contraction for “who is”? (who’s)

(2)

What is the contraction for “it will”? (it’ll)

(3)

What is the contraction for “it is”? (it’s)

(4)

What is the contraction for “we are”? (we’re)

(5)

It’s” is a contraction for what two words? (it is)

(6)

We’d” is a contraction for what two words? (we would or we had)

(7)

Which is correct: disappoint or misappoint? (disappoint)

(8)

Which is correct: ilbehave or misbehave? (misbehave)

(9)

Which is correct: disbuild or rebuild? (rebuild)

(10)

Which is correct: unlegal or illegal? (illegal)

(11)

Which is correct: unbelief or disbelief? (disbelief)

(12)

Which is correct: disagree or unagree? (disagree)

(13)

Which is correct: disunderstand or misunderstand? (misunderstand)

(14)

Which is correct: disagree or unagree? (disagree)

(15)

Which is correct: unperfect or imperfect? (imperfect)

(16)

Which is correct: disimportant or unimportant? (unimportant)

(17)

Which is correct: incorrect or uncorrect? (incorrect)

(18)

Which is correct: impatient or unpatient? (impatient)

(19)

Which is correct: unproper or improper? (improper)

(20)

Which is correct: unable or inable? (unable)

(21)

Which is correct: ingrateful or ungrateful? (ungrateful)

(22)

Which is correct: ilcomfortable or uncomfortable? (uncomfortable)

(23)

Which is correct: inconsiderable or unconsiderable? (inconsiderable)

(24)

Which is correct: prejudice or rejudice? (prejudice)


(25)

Which is correct: inactive or unactive?

(inactive)

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