5th Grade - Using Prepositional Phrases, Clauses, Transitions And Conjunctions

 
     
 
     
 
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5th
Grammar
Using prepositional phrases, clauses, transitions and conjunctions
Identify and correctly use prepositional phrases, appositives, and independent and dependent clauses; use transitions and conjunctions to connect ideas.
Be able to recognize prepositions, the object of prepositions, appositives, independent clauses, dependent clauses, and conjunctions; follow correct grammar rules when connecting words, phrases, and clauses in sentences.
 

Sample Problems

(1)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase? The mountains looked so close, but we still had so far to go. (conjunction)

(2)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase?

My aunt, the lawyer, will be visiting next month. (appositive)

(3)

What is the prepositional phrase in this sentence?

Do you remember the title of the new book? (of the new book)


(4)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? When the doorbell rang, she went to the door. (independent clause)

(5)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase?

The balloons are available in red or purple. (conjunction)

Learning Tips

(1)

Vocabulary


Prepositional phrases- a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun (called the object of the preposition).


The object of the preposition- is the noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional phrase.


Appositives- a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows.


Clause- a group of words with a subject and verb.


Independent clauses- a group of words with a subject and a verb that can stand on its own as a complete sentence.


Dependent clauses- a group of words with a subject and a verb that cannot be a complete sentence on its own; it needs an independent clause to complete its meaning. Another name for dependent clauses are subordinate clauses.


Conjunction- a word that joins other words, phrases, or clauses. The most common conjunctions are and, but, and or.


(2)

Appositives


Appositives are a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows.


For example: (The appositive is in bold.)


Licky, our neighbor’s friendly dog, is very large.


Appositives are a handy way to combine short sentences that have the same subject.


For example: (The appositive is in bold.)


The boy in the blue cap is Harry. Harry is my tennis partner.

The boy in the blue cap is Harry, my tennis partner.


Using the appositive keeps us from having to repeat Harry’s name twice. That makes for smoother writing.


Have you noticed that appositives are usually set off by commas? If the appositive is essential information, then it might not be.


For example: (The appositive is in bold.)


My friend Lucy is from France.


The fact that the Lucy is my friend’s name is essential- otherwise you wouldn’t know which friend I was talking about. Also, adding commas in such a short sentence really chops it up.


(3)

Conjunction, What’s Your Function?


Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses. When you see “conjunction”, think “connector”.


Conjunctions have different meanings and make different kinds of connections. The chart belong explains the meaning of common conjunctions.


Conjunction

Meaning or

Kind of Connection

Example

and

combination

The boy and his dad went to the beach.

but

contrast

The weather was overcast but warm.

or, nor

choice

Do you want milk or water?

for, so

cause and effect

He refused, so he had to make do without a drink.

yet

unexpected contrast

He was thirsty, yet he refused to ask for anything.


You should memorize the commonly used conjunctions so that you can recognize them:

and, or, nor, for, so, but, yet




You should be familiar with other conjunctions:

after, although, as, as if, as soon as, because, before, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, while, whenever





The following conjunctions come in pairs (you will see the first word, then other words in the sentence and then the second word). Be familiar with them as well:

either….or, neither….nor, both… and, not only…. but also, whether… or





Write down an example sentence using each conjunction. Coming up with your own sentence will help you remember them better. Do you see how the conjunction “connects” parts of the sentence?


(4)

It’s Not Santa Claus!

A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. They come in two flavors: independent clauses, which can be a complete sentence by themselves, and dependent clauses, which depend on the independent clause to complete their meaning.

Dependent clauses are also called subordinate clauses because they begin with subordinating conjunctions. Common subordinating conjunctions are:

who, after, as, because, if, unless, whenever, when, and where.



Remember that if you read just the independent clause, you will have a complete sentence. If you read just the dependent clause, it won’t make sense.

For example: The police chief began his speech when all the reporters were ready.

The police chief began his speech” – Does that sound like a complete sentence? Yes? Then it’s an independent clause.

When all the reporters were ready”- Does that sound like a complete sentence? No? Then it’s a dependent clause.

(5)

Is it A Preposition?


A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and ends with an object. Obviously, you must be able to recognize a preposition before you can identify prepositional phrases. A preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence.


Remember: A preposition must always have an object.


Here is a list of common words that can be used as prepositions:



about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, besides, between, beyond, but (when it means except), by, concerning, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, out, outside, over, past, since, through, to, toward, under, until, up, upon, with, within, without










Be careful! These words can also be used as other parts of speech, such as adverbs. Does the word have an object or noun to complete it? If so, it’s a preposition. If not, it’s not.


For example:

Sam turned off the light. Sam turned off what? The light. Okay, the light is the object, so off is used as a preposition here.


Jamie stood up. Up what? Up whom? Up nothing! So up doesn’t have an object and is not a preposition in this context.

Extra Help Problems

(1)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase? My sister and I each want to win the race. (conjunction)

(2)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase?

The weatherman said it will rain or snow. (conjunction)

(3)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase? I wanted to play in the game, but I got hurt. (conjunction)

(4)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase?

There goes Howie Jones, the major. (appositive)

(5)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase? A gifted musician, Marilyn makes sure she practices daily. (appositive)

(6)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase? Your brother James is in trouble. (appositive)

(7)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase? My friend, Matt Hudson, cooks Italian food. (appositive)

(8)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase? My grandmother, the world traveler, has been to many fascinating countries. (appositive)

(9)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase? The actor Tom Hanks has been in many powerful movies. (appositive)

(10)

Is the underlined word or phrase an appositive, conjunction, or prepositional phrase? (appositive)

(11)

What is the preposition in the sentence?

He came down with a cold during the winter. (during)

(12)

What is the object of the preposition in the sentence?

He came down with a cold during the winter. (winter)

(13)

What is the preposition in the sentence?

We went under the tent to keep dry. (under)

(14)

What is the object of the preposition in the sentence?

We went under the tent to keep dry. (tent)

(15)

What is the preposition in the sentence?

Few of the birds on the lake were awake. (of)

(16)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? When the doorbell rang, she went to the door. (dependent clause)

(17)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? Because there was no one in sight, I felt very alone. (dependent clause)

(18)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? Because there was no one in sight, I felt very alone. (independent clause)

(19)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? You don’t realize how fast time flies until you are having fun. (independent clause)

(20)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? You have to think about other people if you want to be a good friend. (independent clause)

(21)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? You have to think about other people if you want to be a good friend. (dependent clause)

(22)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? After the game was over, my legs felt very sore. (dependent clause)

(23)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? After the game was over, my legs felt very sore. (independent clause)

(24)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? As she started to speak, there was a loud noise outside. (dependent clause)

(25)

Is the underlined clause independent or dependent? As she started to speak, there was a loud noise outside. (independent clause)

 

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