5th Grade - Selecting A Focus And Structure In Oral Reports

 
     
 
     
 
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5th
Oral Presentations
Selecting a focus and structure in oral reports
Select a focus, organizational structure, and point of view for an oral presentation.
Be able to take a position for or against an issue, use focused supporting evidence, and organize your speech in the clearest, most convincing way.
 

Sample Problems

(1)

What are ways in which you can organize your speech? (in chronological order, spatial order, cause then effect, problem then solution, or in order of importance)

(2)

What are some of the advantages of presenting a well organized speech? (it is easier for you to present ideas when you go in a logical order, and it is easier for the audience to follow along)

(3)

How many main ideas should you use to support your topic in your speech? (at least three but not more than five)

(4)

True or False: It’s okay to take a middle ground on a position and present both sides in one speech. (false)

(5)

What is a useful tool that will help you create an organizational structure to your speech? (an outline)

Learning Tips

(1)

Organizing your Speech

Think of a time when you had to follow someone’s directions to get to a certain place that you had never been to before. If the directions skipped steps then told them out of order later, it’s very confusing to follow them. This holds true for speeches: if your speech is clearly organized, then it’s easier for the audience to follow your ideas.


You benefit from a well organized speech in the following ways:


  • It makes it easier for you to remember what you want to talk about when you are organized. When you use a predictable pattern, you understand the relationship between ideas better and the next thing to talk about seems more natural.


  • An organized speech makes it easier for the audience to follow you. They're able to predict, in general, what will come next and make sense of it, so they can spend their time listening to your speech rather than trying to figure out how your ideas fit together. The audience will remember your key points better.


  • An organized speech shows that since you took the time to organize it in a clear way, you know what you are talking about.


Always remember that hearing something is different from reading, because your audience cannot follow your speech at their own pace as they can do when reading. That is why it is important for you to help them follow your speech with clear and logical organization.


(2)

How to Organize Your Speech: An Overall View


Many famous speakers believe that recipe for giving an effective speech is to:


1. Tell them (the audience) what you're going to tell them

2. Tell them

3. Tell them what you told them


The introduction is when you say what you are going to talk about. The body of the speech is when you give your main points and supporting details, and the conclusion is when you summarize what you have said.


(3)

Speech Outline


It’s a good idea to take the time to create an outline of your speech. This will give you an overall view that helps you understand what to say when.


Focus or Topic:


Point of View or Main Message:


Introduction

Catchy opening:

State topic and message:

List main supporting points:

Body

Main Idea:

Supporting details:

Main Idea:

Supporting details:

Main Idea:

Supporting details:

Conclusion

Repeat main points:

Summarize your message:

Tell the audience what to do next (call-to-action):




(4)

Putting Your Speech in Order

How should you organize your main points? The way will depend on what the ideas are. If they follow a specific order in time, when chronological order makes sense. If there are causes and effects or problems and solutions, then the cause or problem will come before the effects or solutions. If you are talking about a space (like objects in a room or cities in a country), then going around in order is best. If one of those orders does not fit, then you can decide to start with your strongest points first and move to weaker ones or you can build up to your strongest points.

These ways are summarized below:

Chronological order - the time order in which events took place.

Cause-effect - show how your topic was the result of essential events.

Problem-solution- describe how the problem came about and then the solution to that problem

Spatial order - describe the physical setup of your topic

Order of importance – go from the least important information to the most important or from the most to least.

Remember that you should have at least three main ideas, but not more than five. Your supporting ideas and details must be directly related to your main message.

(5)

Point of View or Position


When you give a speech, your message needs to give a strong position on an issue. You want to make your audience think about the issue or problem and then agree with you about how it should be solved. Sometimes students have debates in which one person will argue for one side and another person will argue strongly for the other side. Even if you do not have another person to argue against, try to make your speech as compelling and as strong as possible.


Extra Help Problems

(1)

True or False: It makes it easier for you to remember what you want to talk about when your speech is well organized. (true)

(2)

True or False: When you use a predictable pattern, you understand the relationship between ideas better and the next thing to talk about seems more natural. (true)

(3)

True or False: An outline of your speech is optional. (false)

(4)

If the topic of your speech is reasons why winter is the best season, which idea is not a good choice to use: winter weather is cold so you get to bundle up; winter sports, like skiing and ice skating, are fun; winter food like soups and hot chocolate are hearty; winter conditions can lead to frostbite and freezing. (winter conditions can lead to frostbite and freezing)

(5)

True or False: An organized speech makes it easier for the audience to follow you. (true)

(6)

True or False: The audience can predict, in general, what will come next in an organized speech. (true)

(7)

True or False: If you speech is well organized, the audience can spend their time listening to your speech rather than trying to figure out how your ideas fit together. (true)

(8)

True or False: If your speech is well organized, the audience will remember your key points better. (true)

(9)

True or False: An organized speech shows that you know what you are talking about. (true)

(10)

True or False: A listener is able to follow your speech at his own pace, like he would if he were reading. (false)

(11)

Is it easier to go back and repeat something you didn’t understand the first time when you are reading or listening? (reading)

(12)

True or False: Making your speech well organized helps you and your audience. (true)

(13)

True or False: The supporting ideas and details in your speech must be directly related to your main message. (true)

(14)

What does it mean to put something in chronological order? (to list events in the order they took place occurring to time)

(15)

What does it mean to put your speech in cause-effect order? (to start by describing the causes and then describe the effects)

(16)

What does it mean to put your speech in problem-solution order? (to start by describing how the problem came about and then the solution to that problem)

(17)

What does it mean to put your speech in space order? (to describe ideas or things in the way they are arranged in physical space)

(18)

What does it mean to put your speech in order of importance? (to start with the most important ideas and work down in order to the least important or to start with the least important and work up to the most important)

(19)

What is it called when one person argues for one side of an side and then another person gets up and argues for the other side? (a debate)

(20)

True or False: Your speech should repeat your main message at least in the introduction and in the conclusion. (true)

(21)

True or False: Your speech should make the listeners guess what your main message was. (false)

(22)

True or False: Your speech should mention ideas in whatever order they came to you. (false)

(23)

True or False: You should take time to create an outline because thinking about it and writing down your ideas will help you understand them better. (true)

(24)

What should go in the introduction to your speech? (a catchy opening, a statement of the topic and your main message, and a listing of your main supporting points)

(25)

What should go in the conclusion to your speech? (a repetition of your main points, a summary of your message, and a call-to action for the audience)

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