5th Grade - Using Citations, End Notes And References

Using citations, end notes and references
Use organizational features of printed text (e.g., citations, end notes, bibliographic references) to locate relevant information. (research and technology)
Be able to find the author, title of a book or article, publisher, date of publication, page number, and other information from citations, endnotes, footnotes, and bibliographies.

Sample Problems


In a bibliography entry, what do you do to the title of a book? (underline it)


Which two types of citations use superscript numbers? (endnotes and footnotes)


What would you look at in the bibliography if you want to know if a book includes recent scientific discoveries? (the title and publication date)


What is it called when someone uses material without giving credit to the author of that material? (plagiarism)


How do you organize the list of sources in a bibliography? (alphabetically)

Learning Tips



Citations- is a reference to a book, article, web page, or other published text that includes information such as author and title used to identify the source. There are many different citation styles or ways to identify your sources.

Endnotes- little superscript numbers sprinkled at the end of sentences in the text that refer you to the exact page number of a source that is listed in an Endnote section at the end of the essay.

Footnotes- little superscript numbers sprinkled at the end of sentences in the text that refer you to the exact page number of a source that is listed at the bottom of that same page.

Bibliography- a list of books, articles, and other sources that are cited within and were used during research for a written work; this list is in alphabetical order and follows the essay.

Periodicals- a text that is published on a regular schedule (after a set period of time), such as a newspaper, magazine, or yearbook.

Plagiarism- using someone else’s work without giving them credit for it.


Building a Bibliography- Books

In order to understand how to find information from bibliographies, you need to know which pieces of information are included. This also will help you when you have to write your own bibliographies.

For a book with one author:

dePaola, Tomie. Bill and Peter Go Down the Nile. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1987.

A book with two authors is very similar to the one above, except that both authors are given and in the order they are listed on the title page.

For example:

Ride, Sally and Tam O'Shaughnessy. Exploring Our Solar

System. New York: Crown Publishers, 2003.


Building a Bibliography- Continued

For encyclopedias and other familiar reference books, you say the author, the title of article (in quotes), the title of the book (underlined), and the date of edition.

For example:

Hutson, James H. "Franklin, Benjamin." The World Book

Encyclopedia. 2006. "France." Compton's Encyclopedia. 2004.

For an article in a periodical (like a newspaper or magazine), say the author (if available), the title of the article in quotes, the title of the periodical which is underlined, the date published, and the page number.

For example:

"N.F.L. Training Camp Report" The New York Times 21 August

1996: B12.


What Are Those Little Numbers? Learning about Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes and Endnotes are the little numbers you see raised up (in superscript) at the end of a sentence. After you see one in the text, then you can look up that same number in the Footnote list (at the bottom of the page) or the Endnote list (at the end of the essay) to find the information about the source the author is giving credit to.

One unique thing about Endnotes and Footnotes is that they give you the exact page numbers that the information can be found. Works Cited, References, or Bibliography sections only list the name of the whole book or source, not the exact page. The Endnotes page also comes before the Bibliography, or Works Cited, or References page.

Example in text:

Tomie dePaola refers to the villain as “the Bad Guy”.1 This phrase is used several times.

See the little 1 up there? You can find the little one in the list and it will tell you about the book that’s referenced.

Example endnote or footnote:

1 Tomie dePaola, Bill and Pete Go Down the Nile (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1987) 14.

Do you notice any differences between this and the way the same book would look in a Bibiliography or Works Cited page? The author’s name has the first name first, and the page number comes after the publication information. There is also only one period.


Why Do We Care about Sources?

After you work hard on something, you don’t want someone else to come and take the credit for it. That’s what plagiarism is- when someone doesn’t give credit to the right author. Plagiarism can be using a whole text, cutting and pasting sections of a text, or paraphrasing (or changing the words) only somewhat.

Of course, if you find valuable information, you certainly can use it in the right way-- just have to use citations and give credit to the source.


Rule of Three: Multiple Sources

It’s important to use more than one source when you are doing research because sources can contain errors. Check for accuracy by comparing the information in at least three sources. If three books or articles agree on it, you can be pretty sure it is considered correct.

Extra Help Problems


True or False: The titles of articles are enclosed in quotation marks. (true)


For each source listed in a bibliography, the first line begins where? (at the margin)


For each source listed in a bibliography, after the first line, you _____ each line that follows. (indent)


True or False: For a bibliography, if required information, such as author or place of publication, is not available, just leave it out. (true)


How are citations arranged when you list them for the endnote section? (in numerical order)


How are citations sequenced when you list them for footnotes? (in numerical order)


Where do you find the footnote information? (at the bottom of the same page)


True or False: There is only one style or way to write a bibliography. (false, there are many ways, such as MLA Style or Chicago Style)


To find the most information about the Civil War, you would look in:

a) a dictionary

b) a thesaurus

c) an atlas

d) an encyclopedia



Which of these would be guaranteed to give you a map of all the seas in the world:

a) a dictionary

b) a thesaurus

c) an atlas

d) an encyclopedia



Is it okay to use a source without citing it? (no)


Is it okay to use a source if you include it in your bibliography? (yes)


When you decide which books to pursue from a bibliography, what are some things to consider? (book title, publication date, and publication location)


Why is knowing when a book was published helpful? (so you can see how dated the information inside it is)


Which type of citation includes the reference information at the bottom of the page? (footnote)


Which is not included in a bibliographic reference?

a) title of book

b) author

c) publisher

d) author’s location



When is a better time to jot down bibliographic information: when you are taking notes or when you are all done with your research? (when you are taking notes)


Why is bibliographic information helpful to readers? (so they can know where information came from and look up those sources if they wish)


If a book has two authors, how many do you include in the bibliography? (two)


If a book has three authors, how many do you include in the bibliography? (only the first two, as listed on the title page)


If a book has four authors, how many do you include in the bibliography? (only the first two, as listed on the title page)


How do you format the name of a newspaper in a bibliographic reference? (underline it)


How do you format the name of an article in a bibliographic reference? (put it in quotes)


Do you include the page number where you found the information in a bibliographic reference for a book? (no)


How do you format the name of a magazine in a bibliographic reference? (underline it)


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