4th Grade - Using Parentheses

 
     
 
     
 
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4th
Algebra
Using Parentheses
Interpret and evaluate mathematical expressions that now use parentheses.
Understand that in an expression that uses parentheses, you conduct the operation in the parentheses first to solve the problem. For example: (14 +5) – 6 First, solve 14 + 5 =19; then subtract 19 - 6 = 13 The answer to the expression is 13.
 

Sample Problems

(1)

Solve the expression:

(60 - 40) + 11


(20+11=31)

(2)

Which expression has the value of: 61

(a) (29 + 34) – 2

(b) 29 + (34 –4)


(a)

(3)

Add the parentheses to make the expression equal to 29:


8 x 3 + 5


[(8 x 3) + 5]

(4)

Find the value of the expression:

45 – (5 x 3)


(45 -15 = 30)

(5)

Which expression relates to the words:

Grace had 120 stickers. She gave 3 of her friends 12 stickers each. How many stickers does Grace have left?

  1. (120 – 3) x 12

  2. 120 – (3 x 12)


(b)

Learning Tips

(1)

Math Vocabulary


Variable- a letter or symbol that stands for any number


Equation- A number sentence which states that two amounts are equal (2 x 3 = 6).


Expression- A part of a number sentence that has numbers and operation signs, but does not have an equal sign (13 + 2) – 4


Operation- Add, subtract, multiply or divide (+, - , x, ÷)

(2)

Remind child to solve mathematical problems that are in parentheses first, and then complete operations from left to right. Otherwise, they may not receive an accurate answer.


Write an expression and move the parentheses around to show the child how the answers are not the same when you switch around the parentheses.

(3)

Review with the child how to determine the accurate expression for word problems by reviewing the clue words that help them with using the correct operation (+, -, x, ÷).

Clue words tell you the kind of math sentence to write to solve the problem.

Addition Clue Words

Subtraction Clue Words

add
sum
total
plus
in all
both
together
increased by
all together

subtract
difference
take away
less than
are not
remain
decreased by
have left
change (money problems)
how much more
fewer



Multiplication Clue Words

Division Clue Words

times
product of
multiplied by
by (dimension)

quotient of
divided by
half for a fraction
as much
split
separated
cut up
parts
sharing something equally



(4)

Basic addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division skill practice. Use flash cards, play bingo, concentration, Go Fish, timed quizzes, etc. Practice will allow child to solve expressions and equations with ease.

(5)

Place math equations on index cards. Have your child use color markers and decide where the parentheses will need to be added in order to make the equation true.

Extra Help Problems

(1)

Solve the expression:

(41 – 36) + 74

(5+74=79)

(2)

Solve the expression:

134 – (61 + 63)


(134-124=10)

(3)

Solve the expression:

163 – (12 x 7)


(163-84=79)

(4)

Solve the expression:

(19 x 3) + 49


(57+49=106)

(5)

Solve the expression:

(25 x 6) ÷ 10


(15010=15)

(6)

Which expression has the value of: 87

  1. 123 – (44 + 8)

  2. (123 – 44) + 8


(b)

(7)

Which expression has the value of: 19

(a) (56 – 24) – 13

(b) 56 – (24 – 13)


(a)

(8)

Which expression has the value of: 6

  1. (24 ÷ 6) + 2

  2. 24 ÷ (6 + 2)

(a)

(9)

Which expression has the value of: 51

  1. 12 + (5 x 3)

  2. (12 + 5) x 3


(b)

(10)

Which expression has the value of: 72

  1. 8 x (7 + 2)

  2. (8 x 7) + 2


(a)

(11)

Add the parentheses to make the expression equal to 45:


56 – 20 – 9


[56 –( 20 – 9)]

(12)

Add the parentheses to make the expression equal to 88:


100 – 8 + 4


[100 – (8 + 4 )]

(13)

Add the parentheses to make the expression equal to 38:

85 – 23 + 24


[85 – (23 + 24)]

(14)

Add the parentheses to make the expression equal to 32:

7 + 9 x 2


[(7 + 9) x 2]

(15)

Add the parentheses to make the expression equal to 6:

8 + 16 ÷ 4


[(8 + 16 )÷ 4]

(16)

Add the parentheses to make the expression equal to 30:

3 x 12 – 2


[3 x (12 – 2)]

(17)

Which number will make the expression equal 34:

(11 + 6) + □


(17)

(18)

Which number will make the expression equal 24:

(3 x □) -12


(12)

(19)

Which number will make the expression equal 42:

(9 ÷ □) x 14

(3)

(20)

Which expression relates to the words:

At the carnival, Ryan had 8 tokens. He used three and found 15.

(a) (8 – 3) + 15

(b) 8 – (3 + 15)


(a)

(21)

Which expression relates to the words:

Sarah had 12 pieces of gum. She gave 2 pieces to her 5 friends. How much did she have left?

  1. (12 – 2) x 5

  2. 12 – (2 x 5)


(b;12-10=2)

(22)

Which expression relates to the words:

The art teacher had 27 paint brushes. She gave 5 paint brushes to 5 students. How many were left.

  1. 27 – (5 x 5)

  2. (27 – 5) x 5


(a)

(23)

Write an expression that relates to the words:

Joey had 12 movie tickets. He gave 3 to his brother and got 10 more from his mom. How many tickets does Joey have?


[(12-3)+10=19]


(24)

Write an expression that relates to the words:

There were 18 cupcakes and Grandma gave each of her 6 children 2 cupcakes and ate the rest. How many cupcakes did Grandma eat?


[18-(6x2)=6]

(25)

Write an expression that relates to the words:

Larry had $0.60 and dropped 7 nickels in the grass. How much money is left?


[$0.60-(7x$0.05)=$0.25]

 

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