# 4th Grade - Using Parentheses

 Grade Level: 4th Skill: Algebra Topic: Using Parentheses Goal: Interpret and evaluate mathematical expressions that now use parentheses. Skill Description: Understand that in an expression that uses parentheses, you conduct the operation in the parentheses first to solve the problem. For example: (14 +5) – 6 First, solve 14 + 5 =19; then subtract 19 - 6 = 13 The answer to the expression is 13.

## Building Blocks/Prerequisites

### Sample Problems

 (1) Solve the expression: (60 - 40) + 11 (20+11=31) (2) Which expression has the value of: 61 (a) (29 + 34) – 2 (b) 29 + (34 –4) (a) (3) Add the parentheses to make the expression equal to 29: 8 x 3 + 5 [(8 x 3) + 5] (4) Find the value of the expression: 45 – (5 x 3) (45 -15 = 30) (5) Which expression relates to the words: Grace had 120 stickers. She gave 3 of her friends 12 stickers each. How many stickers does Grace have left? (120 – 3) x 12 120 – (3 x 12) (b)

### Learning Tips

(1)

Math Vocabulary

Variable- a letter or symbol that stands for any number

Equation- A number sentence which states that two amounts are equal (2 x 3 = 6).

Expression- A part of a number sentence that has numbers and operation signs, but does not have an equal sign (13 + 2) – 4

Operation- Add, subtract, multiply or divide (+, - , x, ÷)

(2)

Remind child to solve mathematical problems that are in parentheses first, and then complete operations from left to right. Otherwise, they may not receive an accurate answer.

Write an expression and move the parentheses around to show the child how the answers are not the same when you switch around the parentheses.

(3)

Review with the child how to determine the accurate expression for word problems by reviewing the clue words that help them with using the correct operation (+, -, x, ÷).

Clue words tell you the kind of math sentence to write to solve the problem.

 Addition Clue Words Subtraction Clue Words addsumtotalplusin allbothtogetherincreased byall together subtractdifferencetake awayless thanare notremaindecreased byhave leftchange (money problems)how much morefewer Multiplication Clue Words Division Clue Words timesproduct ofmultiplied byby (dimension) quotient ofdivided byhalf for a fractionas muchsplitseparatedcut uppartssharing something equally
(4)

Basic addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division skill practice. Use flash cards, play bingo, concentration, Go Fish, timed quizzes, etc. Practice will allow child to solve expressions and equations with ease.

(5)

Place math equations on index cards. Have your child use color markers and decide where the parentheses will need to be added in order to make the equation true.