4th Grade - Using Parentheses, Commas And Apostrophes

 
     
 
     
 
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4th
Grammar
Using parentheses, commas and apostrophes
Use parentheses, commas in direct quotations, and apostrophes in the possessive case of nouns and in contractions.
Ability to use commas appropriately in quotations in combination with quotation marks “ ”. The ability to use parentheses ( ) to include an idea of lesser importance or a side note in dialogue. The knowledge of grammatical rules for using apostrophes ’ ‘ to show possession and combining of words to make contractions (e.g. aren’t, we’re, etc.).
 

Sample Problems

(1)

How can we use punctuation to show possession? (apostrophes)

(2)

How can we use punctuation to make contractions? (apostrophes)

(3)

How can we use punctuation in dialogue? (commas in quotations)

(4)

What is the function of parentheses? (bookends of a phrase)

(5)

What does an apostrophe replace in a contraction? (part of the word)

Learning Tips

(1)

Have students study scripts from plays or books with dialogue, paying attention to the grammar and punctuation used.

(2)

Students can practice speaking in contractions to shorten speech – they can be timed to see what a difference is apparent. For example: I cannot go to the store if there is no money to buy what they have before.

I can’t go to the store if there’s no money to buy what they’ve before.

(3)

Listen to the learner read aloud passages at their level of reading ability with a strong voice and expression. The learner should emphasize PAUSES where they see commas so dramatically that you can “hear” the commas by noticing the pauses. Count how many you hear and compare your number to the text to see if the child emphasized all of them.

(4)

Walk around the home/room or gather a few objects. Have the child complete the sentence, “This/These is/are ______’s _______.” to show belonging, or possession for each of the objects. For example: “This is my mom’s book.” Or “These are Josh’s candies.”

(5)

Help the child practice writing possessive plural and singular nouns, including those that don’t always end with -s. Make a table (for example):

Singular Noun

Possessive

Plural Noun

Possessive

fan

fan’s

fans

fans’

couch

couch’s

couches

couches’

table

table’s

tables

tables’

person

person’s

people

people’s

rabbit

rabbit’s

rabbits

rabbits’

foot

foot’s

feet

feet’s

sheep

sheep’s

sheep

sheep’s

goose

goose’s

geese

geese’s

Keep on adding to the list or make different lists for different settings (e.g. a farm, at home, at school, at a restaurant, etc.).

Extra Help Problems

(1)

A comma can represent a pause in what? (dialogue)

(2)

How does a comma introduce a character? (in dialogue when someone is about to speak, or just spoke)

(3)

Do parentheses contain the most important idea in a sentence, or an idea of lesser importance? (lesser importance)

(4)

What punctuation do contractions use? (apostrophes)

(5)

What is the common ending to show possession of a noun? (-’s)

(6)

When you want to show possession, where do you insert the apostrophe? (at the end of the word)

(7)

What letter(s) usually follow the apostrophe when showing possession? (s)

(8)

What do you do when you want to show possession but a word already ends with an s? (put an apostrophe after the s)

(9)

What part of “could not” is replaced with an apostrophe in the contraction “couldn’t”? (o)

(10)

What letters from the words “they have” are omitted and replaced with an apostrophe in the contraction “they’ve”? (ha)

(11)

What part of “you will” is replaced with an apostrophe in the contraction “you’ll”? (wi)

(12)

What part of “we would” is replaced with an apostrophe in the contraction “we’d”? (woul)

(13)

What part of “she is” is replaced with an apostrophe in the contraction “she’s”? (i)

(14)

What can a comma be used to introduce? (a thought, speech, a character or person, etc.)

(15)

When writing a play, what parts of the script are shown in parentheses? (feelings or mood settings)

 

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