Describe and classify plane and solid geometric shapes (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, sphere, pyramid, cube, rectangular prism) according to the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices.
Identify shapes of common objects. Identify faces, vertices, and edges of solid shapes; sort solid objects by faces, edges, and vertices. Relate solid shapes and plane shapes. Identify and count vertices and sides of shapes. Use shapes, such as pattern blocks, to make new shapes. Identify the movement of a shape as a slide, flip, or turn. Recognize and draw congruent figures.
Solid shapes (also known as 3-D) shapes are three-dimensional figures that have length, width, and height. Plane shapes (also known as 2-D shapes) are two-dimensional figures. These shapes have no thickness. Plane shapes can be drawn on a flat surface. Help your child identify plane shapes within solid shapes by having your child trace the faces (the flat sides of a solid figure) of each solid figure. Using a pencil and paper, have your child trace around the face of a cylinder (a solid figure with two faces that are circles). If you do not have solid shapes find objects around the house that can be used such as a can of soup as an example of a cylinder. Make sure your child traces both faces. Ask, “What shapes do you see?” Your child should see two circles on the paper. Continue this activity with other solid shapes (cone, cube, cylinder, pyramid, sphere, rectangular prism).
Introduce three-dimensional shapes to your child using every day objects around the house. (Ex. cylinder = a can of soup, sphere = a ball, rectangular prism = a crayon box, cone = a party hat, etc.) Encourage your child to find other objects with the same kind of shape. See how many your child can find. Using paper and pencil, label each page with the name of each solid shape (cone, cube, cylinder, pyramid, sphere, rectangular prism). Have your child write the names of each object he/she finds under the correct solid.
Encourage your child to become familiar with solid shapes (cone, cube, cylinder, pyramid, sphere, rectangular prism) by experimenting and building with them. Allow your child to play with the shapes. Have your child test to see which shapes roll or slide. Have him/her count the faces (flat side of the solid figure), edges (place where two faces meet), and vertices (also known as the corner, where three or more faces meet). If you do not have solid shape blocks, you can use everyday objects found around the house (cylinder = a can of soup, sphere = a ball, rectangular prism = a crayon box, cone = a party hat, etc.). Take the time to label each shape with your child so that he/she may become familiar with the names of each shape.
Help your child create flash cards that can be used to play a game of memory. Two sets of flash cards can be made one for solid shapes and one for plane shapes. For example using 12 note cards, cut out pictures of the six common solids (cone, cube, cylinder, pyramid, sphere, rectangular prism). Pictures of these solids can be printed from the following website http://www.eduplace.com/math/mw/background/2/07/ts_2_7_int_1-2.pdf. Glue each solid on a different note card. On the other six note cards write the names for each solid. Mix up the cards and turn each card over so that it is face down. Children must flip over two cards. If the cards are a match (picture of the solid and correct name), the children get to take the match and go again. If the two cards are not a match, then children must flip the two cards face down again and the next player gets to go. The person with the most matches at the end is the winner.
Help your child describe common characteristics of both solid and plane shapes by having them practice. This will allow your child to build his/her vocabulary. Make flash cards for both solid and plane shapes. Pictures of solids can be printed from the following website http://www.eduplace.com/math/mw/background/2/07/ts_2_7_int_1-2.pdf. Pictures of plane shapes can be found at http://www.eduplace.com/math/mhm/2/07/ts_2_7_int_1-1.pdf. Glue these pictures one on each note card. Show your child the note card and ask him/her to describe what they see. Ask your child to tell you about shape, name, sides (one of the lines that forms a flat shape), vertices (where two sides meet or where three or more faces meet), faces (flat side of a solid figure), edges (where two faces of a solid meet) or anything that describes the shape shown. Use this activity a over and over again to encourage children to learn characteristics of different shapes.