Help children visualize what they are doing by providing small manipulatives (the most you will need is 100 so you may want to use pennies as 100 pennies is easy to get by asking a bank to change a dollar bill for you). First, make sure that children understand that this new skill, “multiplication” is a short-cut for a particular type of addition problem—a problem in which all of the numbers to be added together are the same. If the number of items in each group in this problem is the same, then when we count up how many times it was to be added together, we can think of that as how many groups there are. In our 4 x 3 example, there could be 4 items each in 3 groups or there could be 3 items in each of 4 groups. Use manipulatives to make sure that your child sees that the answer (called the “product” is the same, regardless. Use this information to motivate: the number of combinations to be learned is less than it might seem because combinations are really duplicates of each other. You might count up how many problems it looks like there are, based on the chart (see online section for a link to a nicely-printed chart) and then count up how many there really are after you eliminate the duplicates.